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Concluding Remarks

The caching model of operating system kernel functionality has produced a small, fast micro-kernel, namely the V++ Cache Kernel, providing system performance that appears competitive with monolithic kernels and well-suited for building robust scalable parallel systems.

As realized in the V++ Cache Kernel, the caching model offers three key benefits. First, the low-level caching interface provides application control of hardware resource management. An application kernel can load and unload objects to implement any desired resource management policy, only relying on the Cache Kernel to handle the loaded active objects (over short time intervals) according to this policy.

Second, the low-level Cache Kernel interface and its forwarding of exceptions to the application kernel allows application-specific exception handling and recovery. The caching approach also means that an application never encounters the ``hard'' error of the kernel running out of thread or address space descriptors as can occur with conventional systems like UNIX. The Cache Kernel always allows more objects to be loaded, writing back other objects to make space if necessary.

Finally, the caching model has led to a fundamental reduction in the complexity of supervisor mode software compared to prior micro-kernel work, measured by both lines of code and binary code size. The plethora of query and modify operations of conventional operating systems are absent from the Cache Kernel. Instead, the application kernel unloads the appropriate object, examines its state, and, if a modify operation, loads a modified version of that state back into the Cache Kernel. With experience, we are adding a small number of special query and modify operations as optimizations of this basic mechanism, such as a kernel call to modify the page groups associated with a kernel. However, these few optimizations do not significantly increase the size or complexity of the Cache Kernel. The use of memory-based messaging further simplifies the Cache Kernel and minimizes data copying and traps across the kernel protection boundary. We have taken advantage of this smaller size and stable functionality by incorporating the Cache Kernel into the PROM monitor code.

The Cache Kernel's small size allows it to be used economically in embedded real-time systems as well as to be replicated on each node of a large-scale parallel architecture for fault containment. Exploiting the Cache Kernel facilities, sophisticated application kernels can support efficient, robust parallel computation, real-time processing and database management systems while sharing all or part of a multiprocessor with other application kernels.

We are currently developing application kernels and operating system emulators that exploit the Cache Kernel capabilities. In particular, we are developing a simulation kernel (running on the Cache Kernel) that supports applications such as the MP3D wind tunnel simulation [6]. The operating systems emulators, such as one for UNIX, allow simple applications to share the same hardware concurrently with these sophisticated applications. We are also exploring the use of the Cache Kernel and modular application kernels for fault-tolerant scalable parallel and distributed computing, as described in Section 3.

Looking ahead, hardware manufacturers might reasonably provide a Cache-Kernel-like PROM monitor for their future hardware. This approach would allow a wide range of applications and operating systems to use the hardware without introducing as many dependencies on low-level hardware characteristics. The result would be better portability as well as greater freedom for the hardware manufacturers to revise their implementation of the Cache Kernel abstraction. In fact, it would allow independently developed operating systems to execute concurrently on the same hardware, a situation similar to that provided by the virtual machine operating system efforts of the 1960's and 70's. However, the Cache Kernel ``virtual machine'' supports scalable high-performance parallel distributed systems, not just the conventional single processor, single-node configurations of yore.



Next: Acknowledgements Up: A Caching Model ofOperating Previous: Related Work


kjd@dsg.Stanford.EDU
Tue Oct 4 12:01:58 PDT 1994